Our circumcision research libraryOur experts pulled information from a large reservoir of knowledge on a wide variety of circumcision-related topics including ethics, religion, psychology, and medicine. These are books and articles that were referred to while writing the content for this web site.


A Surgical Temptation: The Demonization of the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain, by Robert Darby

As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, by John Colapinto

Children’s Genitals Under the Knife, by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein

Circumcision Exposed, by Billy Ray Boyd

Circumcision, by David L. Gollaher

Circumcision, by Ed Schoen

Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, by Edward Wallerstein

Circumcision: In Man and Woman, by Felix Bryk

Cut: Slicing Through the Myths of Circumcision (DVD) by Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon and Pennie Ungar-Sargon

Fire in the Belly, by Sam Keen

In Favour of Circumcision, by Brian J. Morris

In the Name of Humanity, by Joseph Lewis

Male Menopause, by Jed Diamond

Marked in Your Flesh, by Leonard B. Glick, Oxford, 2005

Medicalized Masculinities, by Dana Rosenfeld and Christopher A. Faircloth

Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions, by Catherine Bell

Say NO to Circumcision!, by Thomas Ritter and George Denniston

Sex as nature intended it: The most important thing you need to know about making love, but no one could tell you until now. by O’Hara K and J. O’Hara

Sex, Love, and Health in America, by Edward O. Laumann and Robert T. Michael

Stiffed: The Betrayal of American Man, by Susan Faludi

Stop Teaching our Kids to Kill, by Lt. Col. Dave Grossman and Gloria DeGaetano

Symbolic Wounds, by Bruno Bettelheim

The Business of Being Born (DVD), directed by Abby Epstein

The Ethical Canary, by Margaret Somerville

The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell

The Myth of Male Power, by Warren Farrell

The Politics of Reproductive Ritual, by Karen E. Paige and Jeffery M. Paige

The Secret Life of the Unborn Child, by Thomas Verny and John Kelly

The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men, by Christina Hoff Sommers

The Warrior’s Journey Home, by Jed Diamond

Violent Attachments, by J. Reid Meloy

What Life Could Mean to You, by Alfred Adler

Policy Statements

American Academy of Family Physicians. Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision. 2007.

American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision Policy Statement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):686-93.

American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Perinatal Care, Fifth Edition. 2002:111.

Article 19, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). UN General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25.

Article 24.3, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). UN General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25.

Article Eight, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A [XX1]. 16 December, 1966.

Declaration of the First International Symposium on Circumcision. National Organizations of Circumcision Information Resource Centers. 1989.

AAFP Breastfeeding Position Paper. American Academy of Family Physicians. Kansas City, Mo.

Overviews and editorials

Adler R, Ottaway S, Gould S. Circumcision: We have heard from the experts; Now let’s hear from the parents. Pediatrics. 2001;107(2):e20.

Bollinger D. Circumcision (and its opposition) as causes. In: T. Flynn (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Unbelief. 2nd ed. (pp. 193-195). Amherst, NY: Prometheus. 2007.

Full disclosure: Circumcision information for health professionals and parents. International Coalition for Genital Integrity. 2001.

Lane W, Robson M, Van Howe RS. Circumcisions: Again. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):522.

Machmouchi M, Alkhotani A. Is neonatal circumcision judicious? Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Aug;17(4):266-9.

Moreno MM, Furtner F, Rivara FP. Male circumcision: New information about health benefits. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(1):104.

Nagar HS, Chauhan A, Saxena VK. Circumcision: A time to rethink. Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2004;60(4):348-50.

Perera CL, Bridgewater FHG, Thavaneswaran P, Maddern GJ. Safety and efficacy of nontherapeutic male circumcision: A systematic review. Annals of Family Medicine. 2010;8(1):64-72.

Schoen EJ. It’s wise to circumcise: Time to change policy. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6):1490-1.

Schoen EJ. Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits. Pediatrics. 2006;118;385-387.

Wallerstein E. Circumcision: An American health fallacy. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1980:217.

Wallerstein E. Circumcision: the uniquely American medical enigma. Urol Clin North Am. 1985;12(1):123-32.

Warren J, Bigelow J. The case against circumcision. Br J Sex Med. 1994;Sept/Oct:6-8.

Wright JE. Further to the “Further Fate of the Foreskin.” Med J Aust. 1994;160:134-5.

Wright JE. Non-therapeutic circumcision. Med J Aust. 1967;1:1083-6.

Wynder EL, Licklider, SD. The question of circumcision. Cancer. 1960;13(3):442-5.


Cold CJ, Taylor JR. The prepuce. BJU Int. 1999;83(Suppl.1):34-44.

Deibert GA. The separation of the prepuce in the human penis. Anat Rec. 1933;57:387-99.

Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, Fujiwara Y, Kato T, Kato T. Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. J Urol. 1996;156(5):1813-5.

Lakshmanan S, Prakash S. Human prepuce: some aspects of structure and function. Indian J Surg. 1980; 42:134-7.

Taylor JR, Lockwood AP, Taylor AJ. The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. Br J Urol. 1996;77:291-5.

Prevalence, epidemiology and insurance coverage

Craig A, Bollinger D. Of waste and want: A nationwide survey of Medicaid funding for medically unnecessary, non-therapeutic circumcision. In: Denniston GC, Gallo PG, Hodges FM, Milos MF, eds. Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision: Culture, Controversy, and Change. New York: Springer; 2006:233-46.

El Bcheraoui C, Greenspan J, Kretsinger K, Chen R. Rates of selected neonatal male circumcision-associated severe adverse events in the United States, 2007-2009. Proceedings, AIDS 2010, Vienna, Austria. 5 Aug 2010.

Laumann EO, Masi CM, Zuckerman EW. Circumcision in the United States. JAMA. 1997;277:1052-7.

Metcalf TJ, Osborn LM, Mariani EM. Circumcision: a study of current practices. Clin Pediatr. 1983;22:575-9.

Muller AJ. To cut or not to cut? Personal factors influence primary care physicians’ position on elective newborn circumcision. J Mens Health, 2010;7(3): 227–232.

Pang MG, Kim DS. Extraordinarily high rates of male circumcision in South Korea: history and underlying causes. BJU Int 2002;89:48-54.

Speert H. Circumcision of the newborn; an appraisal of the present status. Obstet Gynecol. 1953;2:164-72

Stang HJ, Snellman LW. Circumcision Practice Patterns in the United States. Pediatrics. 1998;101(6):e5.

Topp, S. (1978, January). Why not to circumcise your baby boy. Mothering, 6, 69-77. .

Cost analysis

Ganiats TG, Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcision: A cost-utility analysis. Med Decis Making. 1991;11(4):282-93.

Kahn JG, Marseille E, Auvert B. Cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a South African setting. PLOS. 2006;3(12):e517.

McAllister RG, Travis JW, Bollinger D, Rutiser C, Sundar V. The cost to circumcise Africa. Int J Men’s Health. 2008;7(3):218-321.

Schoen, E J; Colby, C J; Trinh, T To (2006). “Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization”. J Urol 175: 1111–1115.

Van Howe RS. A cost-utility analysis of neonatal circumcision. Med Decis Making. 2004;24:584-601.

Penile problems and conditions

Agarwal A, Mohta A, Anand RK. Preputial retraction in children. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. 2005;10(2):89-91.

Babu R, Harrison SK, Hutton KA. Ballooning of the foreskin and physiological phimosis: is there any objective evidence of obstructed voiding? BJU Int. 2004;94(3):384-7.

Berdeu D, Sauze L, Ha-Vinh P, Blum-Boisgard C. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for phimosis: a comparison of surgical and medicinal approaches and their economic effect. BJU Int. 2001;87:239-44.

Birley HDL, Luzzi GA, Bell R. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis: association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourin Med. 1993;69(5):400-3.

Choe JM. Paraphimosis: current treatment options. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62:2623-6, 2628.

Dewan PA. Treating phimosis. Med J Aust. 2003;178(4):148-50.

Edwards S. (for the Clinical Effectiveness Group) National guideline on the management of balanitis. Association for Genitourinary Medicine (UK) and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases (UK), 2001.

Edwards S. Balanitis and balanoposthitis: a review. Genitourin Med. 1996;72(3):155-9.

Escala JM, Rickwood AM. Balanitis. Br J Urol. 1989;63:196-7.

Imamura E. Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1997;39:403-5.

Freeman C, Laymon CW. Balanitis xerotica obliterans. Arch Dermat Syph. (Chicago) 1941;44(4):547–59.

Kiss A, Csontai A, Pirot L, Nyirady P, Merksz M, Kiraly L. The response of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) to local steroid application compared with placebo in children. J Urol. 2001;165(10):219-20.

Kumar P, Deb M, Das K. Preputial adhesions–a misunderstood entity. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76(8):829-32.

Laymon CW, Freeman C. Relationship of balanitis xerotica obliterans to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Arch Dermat Syph. 1944;49:57-9.

McGregor TB, Pike JG, and Leonard MP. Phimosis—a diagnostic dilemma? Can J Urol. 2005;12(2):2598-602.

McGregor TB, Pike JG, Leonard MP. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis: approach to the phimotic foreskin. Can Fam Physician 2007;53:445-448.

Moses S, Bailey RC, Ronald AR. Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:368–73.

Øster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child. 1968;43:200-3.

Persad R, Sharma S, McTavish J, Imber C, Mouriquand PD. Clinical presentation and pathophysiology of meatal stenosis following circumcision. Br J Urol. 1995;75:91-3.

Pieretti RV, Goldstein AM, Pieretti-Vanmarcke R. Late complications of newborn circumcision: a common and avoidable problem. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26(5):515-8.

Ponsky LE, Ross JH, Knipper N, Kay R. Penile adhesions after neonatal circumcision. J Urol. 2000;164(2):495-496.

Rajan P, McNeill SA, Turner KJ. Is frenuloplasty worthwhile? A 12-year experience. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2006;88:583–584.

Rickwood AM, Walker J. Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1989;71:275-7.

Rickwood AMK, Hemalatha V, Batcup G, Spitz L. Phimosis in boys. Brit J Urol. 1980;52:147-50.

Shankar KR, Rickwood AM. The incidence of phimosis in boys. BJU Int. 1999;84(1):101-2.

Stenram A, Malmfors G, Okmian L. Circumcision for phimosis —indications and results. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1986;75:321-3.

Trier WC, Drach GW. Concealed Penis: another complication of circumcision. Am J Dis Child 1973;125(2):276-7.

Upadhyay V, Hammodat HM, Pease PW. Post-circumcision meatal stenosis: 12 years’ experience. N Z Med J. 1998;111(1060):57-58.

Van Howe R. Cost-effective treatment of phimosis. Pediatrics. 1998;102:e43.

Van Howe RS. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006;45;49-54.

Van Howe RS. Variability in penile appearance and penile findings: a prospective study. Brit J Urol 1997;80:776-782.

Wang TM, Chen HW, Chiang YJ, Chu SH, Liu KL, Wang HH. A simplified preputial covering technique to correct buried penis. Urol Int. 2010;84(1):10-3.


Complications, morbidity and death

Bollinger, D. Lost boys: An estimate of U.S. circumcision-related infant deaths. Thymos: J Boyhood Studies, 2010;4(1), 78-90.

Cairns J. Circumcision: A minor procedure? Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(4):311-312.

CDC. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012;61(22):405-9.

Connelly KC, Shropshire LC, Salzberg A. Gastric rupture associated with circumcision. Clin Pediatr. 1992;31(9):560-1.

Fergusson DM, Lawton JM, Shannon FT. Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 1988;81:537-41.

Gairdner D. The fate of the foreskin: a study of circumcision. Br Med J. 1949;2:1433-7.

Gluckman GR, Stoller ML, Jacobs MM, Kogan BA. Newborn penile glans amputation during circumcision and successful reattachment. J Urol. 1995;133(3) Part 1:778-9.

Griffiths D, Frank JD. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs. J R Soc Med. 1992;85:324-5.

Griffiths DM, Atwell JD, Freeman NV. A prospective survey of the indications and morbidity of circumcision in children. Eur Urol. 1985;11:184-7.

Newell TEC. Judgement of inquiry into the death of McWillis, Ryleigh, Roman, Bryan. Burnaby, BC: British Columbia Coroner’s Service, Monday, 19 January 2004.

Pediatric Death Review Committee: Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. Circumcision: A minor procedure? Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(4):311-2.

Sauer LW. Fatal staphylococcus bronchopneumonia following ritual circumcision. Am J Obstetr Gynecol. 1943;46:583.

Scurlock JM, Pemberton PJ. Neonatal meningitis and circumcision. Med J Aust. 1977;1(10):332-4.

Sotolongo JR, Hoffman S, Gribetz ME. Penile denudation injuries after circumcision. J Urol. 1985;133:102-3.

Strimling BS. Partial amputation of glans penis during Mogen clamp circumcision. Pediatrics 1996;97:906-7.

Thorup J, Thorup SC, Ifaoui1IBR. Complication rate after circumcision in a paediatric surgical setting should not be neglected. Dan Med J. 2013;60(8):1–3.

Wetli CV. Autopsy of Demetrius Manker. Miami: Office of the Dade County [Florida] Medical Examiner, 1993.

Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Brit J Surg. 1993;80:1231-6.

Wiswell TE, Geschke DW. Risks From Circumcision During the First Month of Life Compared With Those for Uncircumcised Boys. Pediatrics. 1989;83;1011-1015.

Patel H. The problem of routine infant circumcision. Can Med Assoc J. 1966;95:576-81.

Post-circumcision infection and MRSA

Annunziato D, Goldblum LM. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. A complication of circumcision. Am J Dis Child. 1978;132(12):1187-8.

Auerbach MR, Scanlon JW. Recurrence of pneumothorax as a possible complication of circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978;132:583.

Bratu S, Eramo A, Kopec R, Coughlin E, Ghitan M, Yost R, et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospital nursery and maternity units. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005,11(6):

Fortunov RM, Hulten KG, Hammerman WA, Mason EO Jr, Kaplan SL. Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in term and near-term previously healthy neonates. Pediatrics. 2006;118(3):874-81.

Kirkpatrick BV, Eitzman DV. Neonatal septicemia after circumcision. Clinl Pediatr. 1971;13(9):767-8.

Thompson DJ, Gezon HM, Rogers KD, Yee RB, Hatch TF. Excess risk of staphylococcus infection and disease in newborn males. Am J Epidemiol. 1965;84(2):314-28.

Van Howe, R. S., & Robson, W. L. M. (2007). The possible role of circumcision in newborn outbreaks of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcal aureus. Clinical Pediatrics, 46(4):356-358.

Zafar AB, Butler RC, Reese DJ, Gaydos LA, & Mennonna PA. Use of 0.3% triclosan (Bacti-Stat) to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery.
Am J Infect Control. 1995 Jun;23(3):200-8.

Urinary tract infections

Bergström T: Sex differences in childhood urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child. 1972;47:227-32.

Cunningham N. Circumcision and urinary tract infections. Pediatrics 1986;77(2):267.

Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH Jr. Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics. 1982;69:409-12.

Marild S, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Svedberg K. Protective effect of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(2):164-8.

Schoen EJ, Oehrli M, Colby C, Machin G. The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer. Pediatrics 2000;105(3):e6.

Simforoosh N, Tabibi A, Khalili SA, Soltani MH, Afjehi A, Aalami F, Bodoohi H. Neonatal circumcision reduces the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract inf ection: A large prospective study with long-term follow up using Plastibell. J Pediatr Urol. 2010, Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]

To T, Agha M, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study on circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary-tract infection. Lancet. 1998;352(9143):1813-6.

Toker O, Schwartz S, Segal G, Godovitch N, Schlesinger Y, Raveh D. A costly covenant: Ritual circumcision and urinary tract infection. Isr Med Assoc J, 2010;12(5):262-5.

Van Howe RS. Effect of confounding in the association between circumcision status and urinary tract infection. J Infection, 2005;51:59–68.

Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD. Corroborative evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infection in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics. 1986;78:96-9.

Wiswell TE. Urinary tract infection and the uncircumcised state: an update. Clin Pediatrics. 1993;32:130-4.


Abou-Daoud KT. Epidemiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri in Lebanese Christians and Moslems. Cancer. 1967;20:1706-14.

American Cancer Society. (2006). Penile cancer: What are the risk factors for penile cancer? American Cancer Society.

Aitken-Swan J, Baird D. Circumcision and cancer of the cervix. Brit J Cancer. 1965;XIX(2):217-26.

Barney JD. Cancer of the penis. In: Daland EM, Simmons CC, Farber S, Sosman MC, Holmes GW, Warren S, eds. Cancer—A Manual for Practitioners, 2nd ed. Boston: American Cancer Society (Massachusetts Division), Inc.; 1950:161-4.

Bart RS, Kopf AW. Tumor conference No. 18: Squamous-cell carcinoma arising in balanitis xerotica obliterans. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1978;4:556-8.

Bingham JS. Carcinoma of the penis developed in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Br J Vener Dis. 1978;54:350-1.

Boczko S, Freed S. Penile carcinoma in circumcised males. N Y State J Med. 1979;79(12):1903-4.

Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, Herrero R, Gaitan E, Tenorio F, et al. The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women. Int J Cancer. 1989;44:199-203.

Campus GV, Alia F, Bosincu L. Squamous cell carcinoma and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the prepuce. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:962-4.

Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV, de Sanjosé S, et al. for the International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1105-12.

Cold CR, Storms MR, Van Howe RS. Carcinoma in situ of the penis in a 76-year-old circumcised man. J Fam Pract. 1997;44:407-10.

Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Shera KA, Wurscher MA, et al. Penile cancer: Importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in-situ and invasive disease. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:606-16.

Doeven JJ, Oldhoff J, Boer PW, Kuijjer PJ. Penile cancer. Arch Chir Neerl. 1975;27:41-52.

Fleiss PM, Hodges F. Neonatal circumcision does not protect against cancer. BMJ 1996;312(7033):779-80.

Hellberg D, Valentin J, Eklund T, Staffan Nilsson. Penile cancer: Is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behavior. Brit Med J 1987;295(6609):1306-8.

Muir CS, Nectoux J. Epidemiology of cancer of the testis and penis. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1979:157-64.

Van Howe RS, Hodges FM. The carcinogenicity of smegma: debunking a myth. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20(9):1046-54.

STDs and HIV

Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 trial. PLoS Med 2005;2(11):e2.

Bailey RC, Moses S , Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643-56.

Bailis SA. Circumcision and STD in the United States. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Dec;77(6):462-3.

Brewer DD, Brody S, Drucker E, Gisselquist D, Minkin SF, Potterat JJ, et al. Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV in Africa: Cry the beloved paradigm. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:144-7.

Brewer DD, Potterat JJ, Roberts JM, Brody S. Male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:217–26.

Bowers R. Circumcision does not affect women’s STD risk. AIDS Alert. 2007; 22(11):124-5.

Brown JE, Ayowa OB, Brown RC. Dry and tight—sexual practices and potential AIDS risk in Zaire. Soc Sci Med. 1993;37:989-94.

Cook LS, Koutsky LA, and Holmes KK. Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(2):197-201.

Deuchert E, Brody S. Lack of autodisable syringe use and health care indicators are associated with high hiv prevalence: an international ecologic analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17(3):199-207.

Dickson NP, Van Roode T, Herbison P, Paul C. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmitted infections in a birth cohort. J Pediatr. 2008;152(3):383-7.

Diseker RA 3rd, Peterman TA, Kamb ML, Kent C, Zenilman JM, et al. Circumcision and STD in the United States: Cross sectional and cohort analyses. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(6):474-9.

Donovan B, Bassett I, Bodsworth NJ. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting. Genitourin Med. 1994;70:317-20.

Dowsett GW, Couch M. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: Is there really enough of the right kind of evidence? Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29):33–44.

Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infection in young adult males: An analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort. Pediatrics. 118(5):1971-7.

Garenne M. Male circumcision and HIV control in Africa. PLoS Med. 2006;3(1):e78.

Gisselquist D, Potterat JJ, Brody S, Vachon F. Let it be sexual: how health care transmission of AIDS in Africa was ignored. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:148-61.

Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: A randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657-66.

Hart G. Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonococcal infection in males. Genitourin Med. 1993;69(5):393-6.

Montori VM, Devereaux PJ, Adhikari NK, Burns KE, Eggert CH, Briel M, et al. Randomized trials stopped early for benefit: A systematic review. JAMA. 2005;294:2203–9.

Mor Z, Kent CK, Kohn RP, Klausner JD. Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit. PLoS One. 2007;2(9):e861.

Parker SW, Stewart AJ, Wren MN, Gollow MM, Straton AJ. Circumcision and sexually transmissible diseases . Med J Aust. 1983;2:288-90.

Smith DK, Taylor A, Kilmarx PH, Sullivan P, Warner L, Kamb M, Bock N, Kohmescher B, Mastro TD. Male circumcision in the United States for the prevention of HIV infection and other adverse health outcomes: Report from a CDC consultation. Public Health Rep. 2010;125:72-82.

Siegfried N, Muller M, Volmink J, Deeks J, Egger M, Low N, Weiss H, Walker S, Williamson P. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003. Oxford:Update Software.

Van Howe RS, Svoboda JS, Hodges FM. HIV infection and circumcision: cutting through the hyperbole. J Roy Soc Health. 2005;125(6):259-65.

Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 2000;14:2361370.

Pain, stress, trauma and alexithymia

Anand KJ, Scalzo FM. Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior? Biol Neonate. 2000 Feb;77(2):69-82.

Anand KJS, for the International Evidence-Based Group for Neonatal Pain. Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:173-80.

Anand KJS, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New Engl J Med. 1987;317(21):1321-9.

Berenbaum H, James T. Correlates and retrospectively reported antecedents of alexithymia. Psychosom Med. 1994;56:353-359.

Bollinger D, Van Howe, RS. Alexithymia and circumcision trauma: A preliminary investigation. Int J Men’s Health, 2011;10(2):184-95.

Chamberlain DB, Babies remember pain. Pre- and Perinatal Psych. J. 1989;3:297-310.

Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Committee on Drugs, Section on Anesthesiology, Section on Surgery, American Academy of Pediatrics. Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate. Pediatrics. 2000;105(2):454-61.

Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, American Academy of Pediatrics; Task Force on Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, American Pain Society. The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):793-7.

Emde RN, Harmon RJ, Metcalf D, Koenig KL, Wagonfeld S. Stress and neonatal sleep. Psychosom Med. 1971;33(6):491-7.

Fitzgerald M. The birth of pain. MRC News (London). Summer 1998:20-3.

Gavranidou M, Rosner R. The weaker sex? Gender and post-traumatic stress disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2003;17:130-139.

Gunnar MR, Fisch RO, Korsvik S, Donhowe JM. The effects of circumcision on serum cortisol and behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1981;6(3):269-75.

Hepper PG, Fetal memory: Does it exist? What does it do? Acta Pædiatr. (Stockholm) 1996;Suppl.416:16-20.

Holman JR, Stuessi K. Adult Circumcision. American Family Physician. 1999;67(6):1514-1520.

Howard CR, Howard FM, and Weitzman ML. Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain. Pediatrics. 1994;93(4):641-6.

Irwin MG, Cheng W. Comparison of subcutaneous ring block of the penis with caudal epidural block for post-circumcision analgesia in children. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1996;24(3):365-7.

Jacobson B, Bygdeman, M. Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: Case-control study. BMJ 1998;317:1346-1349.

Jeannine Parvati Baker. Ending circumcision: Where sex and violence first meet. Primal Renaissance: The Journal of Primal Psychology. 1996;2(1):54-58.

Kass FC, Holman. Oral glucose solution for analgesia in infant circumcision. J Fam Pract. 2001;50(9):785-8.

Kizilhan JI. Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq. Eur. J. Psychiat. 2011;25(2):92–100.

Kurtis PS, DeSilva HN, Bernstein BA, Malakh L, Schechter NL. A comparison of the Mogen and Gomco clamps in combination with dorsal penile nerve block in minimizing the pain of neonatal circumcision. Pediatrics. 1999;103;e23.

Lander J, Brady-Fryer B, Metcalfe JB, Nazarali S, Muttitt S. Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. JAMA. 1997;278:2158-62.

LaPrairie JL, Murphy AZ. Neonatal injury alters adult pain sensitivity by increasing opioid tone in the periaqueductal gray. Front Behav Neurosci. 2009;3(31):1–11.

Page GG. Are There Long-Term Consequences of Pain in Newborn or Very Young Infants? J Perinat Educ. 2004;13(3):10-17.

Schiavenato M, Butler-O’Hara M, Scovanner P. Exploring the association between pain intensity and facial display in term newborns. Pain Res Manag, 2011;16(1):10–2.

Taddio A, Goldbach M, Ipp M, Stevens B, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain responses during vaccination in boys. Lancet. 1995;345:291-2.

Taddio A, Katz J, Ilersich AL, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet. 1997;349(9052):599-603.

Taeusch HW, Martinez AM, Partridge JC, Sniderman S, Armstrong-Wells J, Fuentes-Afflick E. Pain during Mogen or PlastiBell circumcision. J Perinatol. 2002;22(3):214-8.

Williamson PS, Williamson ML. Physiologic stress reduction by a local anesthetic during newborn circumcision. Pediatrics. 1983;71(1):36-40.

Yilmaz E. Batislam E, Basar MM, Basar H. Psychological trauma of circumcision in the phallic period could be avoided by using topical steroids. Int J Urol. 2003;10(12):651-6.

Intact foreskin care and alternatives

Bollinger D. The Penis-Care Information Gap: Preventing Improper Care of Intact Boys. Thymos, 2008;1(2), 205-219.

Care of the Uncircumcised Penis, Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1999.

Cuckow PM, Rix G, Mouriquand PD. Preputial plasty: a good alternative to circumcision. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29:561-3.

Menon P, Rao KL. What should mothers be counseled about the care of a child’s foreskin? Indian Pediatr. 2004;41(2):200–1.

Osborn LM, Metcalf TJ. Hygienic care in uncircumcised infants. Pediatrics. 1981;67(3):365-7.

Peron JE. Care of the intact penis. Midwifery Today. 1991;17:24.

Watson SJ. Care of uncircumcised penis. Pediatrics. 1987;80(5):765.

Equal rights, ethics, religion and law

Aggleton P. ” Just a snip”?: a social history of male circumcision. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29):15-21.

Benatar D, Benatar M. How not to argue about circumcision. American Journal of Bioethics 2003;3(2):W1–W9.

Binner SL, Mastrobattista JM, DaSiegfried N, Muller M, Volmink J, Deeks J, Egger M, Low N, Weiss H, Walker S, Williamson P. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003. Oxford:Update Software.
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Bioethics Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. Treatment decisions regarding infants, children and adolescents. Paediatrics & Child /h4 /h4/h4Health. 2004;9(2):99-103.

Bond SL. Female circumcision and the equal protection clause. John Marshall L. Rev. 1999;32:353.

Boyle GJ, Svoboda JS, Price CP, Turner JN. Circumcision of Healthy Boys: Criminal Assault? J Law Med. 2000;7:301-310.

Brown, M.S.; C.A. Brown. Circumcision decision: prominence of social concerns. Pediatrics. 1987;80(2): 215–219.

Brown RH. for the Task Force on Pediatric Research, Informed Consent, and Medical Ethics. Consent. Pediatrics. 1976;57(3):414-7.

Brown RH. The pediatrician and malpractice. Pediatrics. 1976;57(3):392-401.

Buvé A, Laga M, Remes P, Padian N, Morison L. Ethics of mass STD treatment. Lancet. 2000;356(9235):1115-6.

Clark PA. To circumcise or not to circumcise. A Catholic ethicist argues that the practice is not in the best interest of male infants. Health Prog. 2006 Sep-Oct;87(5):30-9.

Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics. Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics. 1995;95(2):314-7.

Committee on Medical Ethics. The Law & Ethics of Male Circumcision—Guidance for Doctors. London: British Medical Association, 2003, 2006.

Cooke RWO. Good practice in consent. Sem in Fetal & Neonatal Med, 2005;10:63e71.

Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Principles of Medical Ethics. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2001.

Dekkers W. Routine (non-religious) neonatal circumcision and bodily integrity: a transatlantic dialogue. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2009 Jun;19(2):125-46.

Dekkers W, Hoffer C, Wils JP. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision. Med Health Care Philos. 2005;8(2):179-91.

Diekema DS. Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective. J Clin Ethics. 2009 Fall;20(3):251-7.

Doyle D. Ritual male circumcision: a brief history. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2005;35(3):279-85.

Elder JS. Circumcision: Are you with us or against us? J Urol. 2006;(176):1911.

Farmer A. Outlawing FGM in the USA. Reprod Freedom News, 1999;8(10):1, 3.

Fox M, Thomson M. Short changed? The law and ethics of male circumcision. International Journal of Children’s Rights. 2005;13:161-81.

Gerharz EW, Haarmann C. The first cut is the deepest? Medicolegal aspects of male circumcision. BJU Int. 2000;86(3):332–8.

Goldman R. Circumcision policy: A psychosocial perspective. Paediatr Child Health. 2004;9(9):630-633.

Hellsten SK. Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom—critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation. J Med Ethics. 2004;30:248-53.

Hill G. Informed consent for circumcision. South Med J. 2002;95(8):946.

Hodges FM, Svoboda JS, Van Howe RS. Prophylactic interventions on children: balancing human rights with public health. J Med Ethics. 2002;28(1):10-16.

Hofvander Y. Circumcision in boys: Time for doctors to reconsider. World Hosp Health Serv. 2002;38(2):15-7.

Johnson TR, Pituch K, Brackbill EL, Wan J, van de Ven C, Pearlman MD. Why and how a department of obstetrics and gynecology stopped doing routine newborn male circumcision. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(3):750-2.

Leibowitz AA, Desmond K, Belin T. Determinants and policy implications of male circumcision in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(1), 138-145.Infant development

Lie RK, Emanuel EJ, Grady C. Circumcision and HIV prevention research: an ethical analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:522-5.

Opinion E-8:20, Code of Medical Ethics. Chicago: American Medical Association.

Medical Ethics Committee The law and ethics of male circumcision – guidance for doctors. British Medical Association 2006.

Menage, J. Professionals should not collude with abusive behavior. BMJ 1995;311:1088-9.

Mordeniz C, Verit A. Is circumcision a modified ritual of castration? Urol Int. 2009;82(4):399-403.

Povenmire R. Do parents have the legal authority to consent to the surgical amputation of normal, healthy tissue from their infant children?: The practice of circumcision in the United States. Am Univ J Gend Soc Policy Law. 1998-1999;7(1):87-123.

Robinson R, Makin E, Wheeler R. Consent for non-therapeutic male circumcision on religious grounds. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2009 Mar;91(2):152-4.

Shaw D. Cutting through red tape: non-therapeutic circumcision and unethical guidelines. Clin Ethics 2009;4:181-186.

Slosar JP, O’Brien D. The ethics of neonatal male circumcision: a Catholic perspective. Am J Bioeth. 2003;3(2):62-4.

Svoboda JS, Van Howe RS, Dwyer JC. Informed consent for neonatal circumcision: an ethical and legal conundrum. J Contemp Health Law Policy. 2000:17(1):61-133.

Twisselmann B. Circumcision: Right or wrong. BMJ. 2008;336(7635):60.

US Congress, Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of 1995. 18U.S.C.116.

Walco GA, Cassidy RC, Schechter NL. The ethics of pain control in infants and children. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(8):541-4.

Waldeck SE. Using male circumcision to understand social norms as multipliers. UC Law Rev. 2003;72(3):455-526.

Wheeler R. Consent for non-therapeutic male circumcision: an exception to the rule? Arch Dis Child. 2008 Oct;93(10):825-6.

Zampieri N, Pianezzola E, Zampieri C. Male circumcision through the ages: the role of tradition. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Sep;97(9):1305-7.

Zohar N. Circumcision, conversion, and deciding for a minor: some Jewish perspectives. J Clin Ethics. 2009 Fall;20(3):258-61.

Gender issues

Cohen, JD. Male circumcision in the United States: The history, an analysis of the discourse, and a philosophicalinterpretation. 2011. Theses and Dissertations. Paper 87. http://via.library.depaul.edu/etd/87

Davis DS. Male and female genital alteration: A collision course with the law? Health Matrix. 2001;11:487–570.

Dekkers W, Hoffer C, Wils JP. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision. Med Health Care Philos. 2005;8(2):179-91.

Korner AF. Methodological considerations in studying sex differences in the behavioral functions of newborns. In R. C. Friedman, R. N. Richart, and R. L. Vande Wiele (Eds.), Sex differences in behavior. New York: Wiley. 1974. (similar to Richards, Bernal, and Brackbill)

Kraemer S. The fragile male. BMJ. 2000;321:1609-12.

Kring AM, Gordon AH. Sex differences in emotion: expression, experience, and physiology. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74(3):686-703.

Mathews F. The invisible boy report: Revision the victimization of male children and teens. Health Canada. 1996. 69p.

O’Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM. Anatomy of the clitoris. J Urol. 2005:174(4 Pt 1);1189-95.

Zoske, J. Male circumcision: A gender perspective. Journal of Men’s Studies, 1998;6(2), 189-208.

Sensitivity and sensation

Bleustein C, Eckholdt H, Arezzo J, Melman A. Quantitative somatosensory testing of the penis: Optimizing the clinical neurological examination. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2266-9.

Masood S, Patel HRH, Himpson RC, Palmer JH, Mufti GR, Sheriff MKM. Penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction after circumcision: Are we informing men correctly? Urol Int 2005;75:62–66.

O’Hara K, O’Hara J. The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female partner. BJU Int. 1999;83 (Suppl.1):79-84.

Payne K, Thaler L, Kukkonen T, Carrier S, & Binik Y. Sensation and Sexual Arousal in Circumcised and

Uncircumcised Men. J Sex Med. 2007;4:667–674.

Sorrells ML, Snyder ML, Reiss MD, Eden C, Milos MF, Wilcox N, Van Howe RS. Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int. 2007;99:864-9.

Winkelmann RK. The erogenous zones: their nerve supply and significance. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic. 1959;34(2):39-47.

Sexual function and erectile dysfunction

Althof SE, Seftel AD. The evaluation and management of erectile dysfunction. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1995;18:171-92.

Bensley GA, Boyle GJ. Effects of male circumcision on female arousal and orgasm. New Zealand Med J. 2003;116(1181):1–2.

Bollinger D, Van Howe, RS. Alexithymia and circumcision trauma: A preliminary investigation. Int J Men’s Health, 2011;10(2):184-95.

Christensen BS, Grønbæk M, Osler M, Pedersen BV, Graugaard C, Frisch M. Sexual dysfunctions and difficulties in Denmark: Prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors. Arch Sex Behav, 2011;40:121–132.

Coursey JW, Morey AF, McAninch JW, Summerton DJ, Secrest C, White P, et al. Erectile function after anterior urethroplasty. J Urol. 2001;166(6):2273-6.

Frisch M, Lindholm M, Grønbæk M. Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: A survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol, 2011;1–15. Advance Access published June 14, 2011.

Kim S, Pang M. The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. BJU Int. 2006; 99(3):619–22.

Myer L, Mathews C, Little F. Condom use and sexual behaviours among individuals procuring free male condoms in South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29(4):239-41.

Richters J. Gerofi J, Donovan B. Are condoms the right size(s)? A method for self-measurement of the erect penis. Venereology. 1995:8(2);77-81.

Richters J, Smith AMA, de Visser RO, et al. Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:547-54.

Senkul T, Iseri C, Sen B, KarademIr K, Saracoglu F, Erden. Circumcision in adults: effect on sexual function. Urology. 2004;63(1):155-8.

Tang WS, Khoo EM. Prevalence and correlates of premature ejaculation in a primary care setting: A preliminary cross-sectional study. J Sex Med, 14 Apr 2011.

Taves D. The intromission function of the foreskin. Med Hypotheses. 2002;59(2):180.

Penile Status

Risser JMH, Risser WL, Eissa MA, Cromwell PF, Barratt MS, Bortot A. Self-assessment of circumcision status by adolescents. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:10951097.

Wynder EL, Licklider, SD. The question of circumcision. Cancer. 1960;13(3):442-5.

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