Our experts pulled information from a large reservoir of knowledge on a wide variety of circumcision-related topics including ethics, religion, psychology, and medicine. These are books and articles that were referred to while writing the content for this web site.
A Surgical Temptation: The Demonization of the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain, by Robert Darby
As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, by John Colapinto
Children’s Genitals Under the Knife, by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein
Circumcision Exposed, by Billy Ray Boyd
Circumcision, by David L. Gollaher
Circumcision, by Ed Schoen
Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, by Edward Wallerstein
Circumcision: In Man and Woman, by Felix Bryk
Cut: Slicing Through the Myths of Circumcision (DVD) by Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon and Pennie Ungar-Sargon
Fire in the Belly, by Sam Keen
In Favour of Circumcision, by Brian J. Morris
In the Name of Humanity, by Joseph Lewis
Male Menopause, by Jed Diamond
Marked in Your Flesh, by Leonard B. Glick, Oxford, 2005
Medicalized Masculinities, by Dana Rosenfeld and Christopher A. Faircloth
Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions, by Catherine Bell
Say NO to Circumcision!, by Thomas Ritter and George Denniston
Sex as nature intended it: The most important thing you need to know about making love, but no one could tell you until now. by O’Hara K and J. O’Hara
Sex, Love, and Health in America, by Edward O. Laumann and Robert T. Michael
Stiffed: The Betrayal of American Man, by Susan Faludi
Stop Teaching our Kids to Kill, by Lt. Col. Dave Grossman and Gloria DeGaetano
Symbolic Wounds, by Bruno Bettelheim
The Business of Being Born (DVD), directed by Abby Epstein
The Ethical Canary, by Margaret Somerville
The Hero with a Thousand Faces, by Joseph Campbell
The Myth of Male Power, by Warren Farrell
The Politics of Reproductive Ritual, by Karen E. Paige and Jeffery M. Paige
The Secret Life of the Unborn Child, by Thomas Verny and John Kelly
The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men, by Christina Hoff Sommers
The Warrior’s Journey Home, by Jed Diamond
Violent Attachments, by J. Reid Meloy
What Life Could Mean to You, by Alfred Adler
American Academy of Family Physicians. Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision. 2007.
American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision Policy Statement. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):686-93.
American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Perinatal Care, Fifth Edition. 2002:111.
Article 19, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). UN General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25.
Article 24.3, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). UN General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25.
Article Eight, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A [XX1]. 16 December, 1966.
Declaration of the First International Symposium on Circumcision. National Organizations of Circumcision Information Resource Centers. 1989.
AAFP Breastfeeding Position Paper. American Academy of Family Physicians. Kansas City, Mo.
Overviews and editorials
Adler R, Ottaway S, Gould S. Circumcision: We have heard from the experts; Now let’s hear from the parents. Pediatrics. 2001;107(2):e20.
Bollinger D. Circumcision (and its opposition) as causes. In: T. Flynn (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Unbelief. 2nd ed. (pp. 193-195). Amherst, NY: Prometheus. 2007.
Full disclosure: Circumcision information for health professionals and parents. International Coalition for Genital Integrity. 2001.
Lane W, Robson M, Van Howe RS. Circumcisions: Again. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):522.
Machmouchi M, Alkhotani A. Is neonatal circumcision judicious? Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Aug;17(4):266-9.
Moreno MM, Furtner F, Rivara FP. Male circumcision: New information about health benefits. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(1):104.
Nagar HS, Chauhan A, Saxena VK. Circumcision: A time to rethink. Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2004;60(4):348-50.
Perera CL, Bridgewater FHG, Thavaneswaran P, Maddern GJ. Safety and efficacy of nontherapeutic male circumcision: A systematic review. Annals of Family Medicine. 2010;8(1):64-72.
Schoen EJ. It’s wise to circumcise: Time to change policy. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6):1490-1.
Schoen EJ. Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits. Pediatrics. 2006;118;385-387.
Wallerstein E. Circumcision: An American health fallacy. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1980:217.
Wallerstein E. Circumcision: the uniquely American medical enigma. Urol Clin North Am. 1985;12(1):123-32.
Warren J, Bigelow J. The case against circumcision. Br J Sex Med. 1994;Sept/Oct:6-8.
Wright JE. Further to the “Further Fate of the Foreskin.” Med J Aust. 1994;160:134-5.
Wright JE. Non-therapeutic circumcision. Med J Aust. 1967;1:1083-6.
Wynder EL, Licklider, SD. The question of circumcision. Cancer. 1960;13(3):442-5.
Cold CJ, Taylor JR. The prepuce. BJU Int. 1999;83(Suppl.1):34-44.
Deibert GA. The separation of the prepuce in the human penis. Anat Rec. 1933;57:387-99.
Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, Fujiwara Y, Kato T, Kato T. Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. J Urol. 1996;156(5):1813-5.
Lakshmanan S, Prakash S. Human prepuce: some aspects of structure and function. Indian J Surg. 1980; 42:134-7.
Taylor JR, Lockwood AP, Taylor AJ. The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. Br J Urol. 1996;77:291-5.
Prevalence, epidemiology and insurance coverage
Craig A, Bollinger D. Of waste and want: A nationwide survey of Medicaid funding for medically unnecessary, non-therapeutic circumcision. In: Denniston GC, Gallo PG, Hodges FM, Milos MF, eds. Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision: Culture, Controversy, and Change. New York: Springer; 2006:233-46.
El Bcheraoui C, Greenspan J, Kretsinger K, Chen R. Rates of selected neonatal male circumcision-associated severe adverse events in the United States, 2007-2009. Proceedings, AIDS 2010, Vienna, Austria. 5 Aug 2010.
Laumann EO, Masi CM, Zuckerman EW. Circumcision in the United States. JAMA. 1997;277:1052-7.
Metcalf TJ, Osborn LM, Mariani EM. Circumcision: a study of current practices. Clin Pediatr. 1983;22:575-9.
Muller AJ. To cut or not to cut? Personal factors influence primary care physicians’ position on elective newborn circumcision. J Mens Health, 2010;7(3): 227–232.
Pang MG, Kim DS. Extraordinarily high rates of male circumcision in South Korea: history and underlying causes. BJU Int 2002;89:48-54.
Speert H. Circumcision of the newborn; an appraisal of the present status. Obstet Gynecol. 1953;2:164-72
Stang HJ, Snellman LW. Circumcision Practice Patterns in the United States. Pediatrics. 1998;101(6):e5.
Topp, S. (1978, January). Why not to circumcise your baby boy. Mothering, 6, 69-77. .
Ganiats TG, Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcision: A cost-utility analysis. Med Decis Making. 1991;11(4):282-93.
Kahn JG, Marseille E, Auvert B. Cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a South African setting. PLOS. 2006;3(12):e517.
McAllister RG, Travis JW, Bollinger D, Rutiser C, Sundar V. The cost to circumcise Africa. Int J Men’s Health. 2008;7(3):218-321.
Schoen, E J; Colby, C J; Trinh, T To (2006). “Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization”. J Urol 175: 1111–1115.
Van Howe RS. A cost-utility analysis of neonatal circumcision. Med Decis Making. 2004;24:584-601.
Penile problems and conditions
Agarwal A, Mohta A, Anand RK. Preputial retraction in children. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. 2005;10(2):89-91.
Babu R, Harrison SK, Hutton KA. Ballooning of the foreskin and physiological phimosis: is there any objective evidence of obstructed voiding? BJU Int. 2004;94(3):384-7.
Berdeu D, Sauze L, Ha-Vinh P, Blum-Boisgard C. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for phimosis: a comparison of surgical and medicinal approaches and their economic effect. BJU Int. 2001;87:239-44.
Birley HDL, Luzzi GA, Bell R. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis: association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourin Med. 1993;69(5):400-3.
Choe JM. Paraphimosis: current treatment options. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62:2623-6, 2628.
Dewan PA. Treating phimosis. Med J Aust. 2003;178(4):148-50.
Edwards S. (for the Clinical Effectiveness Group) National guideline on the management of balanitis. Association for Genitourinary Medicine (UK) and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases (UK), 2001.
Edwards S. Balanitis and balanoposthitis: a review. Genitourin Med. 1996;72(3):155-9.
Escala JM, Rickwood AM. Balanitis. Br J Urol. 1989;63:196-7.
Imamura E. Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1997;39:403-5.
Freeman C, Laymon CW. Balanitis xerotica obliterans. Arch Dermat Syph. (Chicago) 1941;44(4):547–59.
Kiss A, Csontai A, Pirot L, Nyirady P, Merksz M, Kiraly L. The response of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) to local steroid application compared with placebo in children. J Urol. 2001;165(10):219-20.
Kumar P, Deb M, Das K. Preputial adhesions–a misunderstood entity. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76(8):829-32.
Laymon CW, Freeman C. Relationship of balanitis xerotica obliterans to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Arch Dermat Syph. 1944;49:57-9.
McGregor TB, Pike JG, and Leonard MP. Phimosis—a diagnostic dilemma? Can J Urol. 2005;12(2):2598-602.
McGregor TB, Pike JG, Leonard MP. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis: approach to the phimotic foreskin. Can Fam Physician 2007;53:445-448.
Moses S, Bailey RC, Ronald AR. Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:368–73.
Øster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child. 1968;43:200-3.
Persad R, Sharma S, McTavish J, Imber C, Mouriquand PD. Clinical presentation and pathophysiology of meatal stenosis following circumcision. Br J Urol. 1995;75:91-3.
Pieretti RV, Goldstein AM, Pieretti-Vanmarcke R. Late complications of newborn circumcision: a common and avoidable problem. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26(5):515-8.
Ponsky LE, Ross JH, Knipper N, Kay R. Penile adhesions after neonatal circumcision. J Urol. 2000;164(2):495-496.
Rajan P, McNeill SA, Turner KJ. Is frenuloplasty worthwhile? A 12-year experience. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2006;88:583–584.
Rickwood AM, Walker J. Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1989;71:275-7.
Rickwood AMK, Hemalatha V, Batcup G, Spitz L. Phimosis in boys. Brit J Urol. 1980;52:147-50.
Shankar KR, Rickwood AM. The incidence of phimosis in boys. BJU Int. 1999;84(1):101-2.
Stenram A, Malmfors G, Okmian L. Circumcision for phimosis —indications and results. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1986;75:321-3.
Trier WC, Drach GW. Concealed Penis: another complication of circumcision. Am J Dis Child 1973;125(2):276-7.
Upadhyay V, Hammodat HM, Pease PW. Post-circumcision meatal stenosis: 12 years’ experience. N Z Med J. 1998;111(1060):57-58.
Van Howe R. Cost-effective treatment of phimosis. Pediatrics. 1998;102:e43.
Van Howe RS. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006;45;49-54.
Van Howe RS. Variability in penile appearance and penile findings: a prospective study. Brit J Urol 1997;80:776-782.
Wang TM, Chen HW, Chiang YJ, Chu SH, Liu KL, Wang HH. A simplified preputial covering technique to correct buried penis. Urol Int. 2010;84(1):10-3.
Complications, morbidity and death
Bollinger, D. Lost boys: An estimate of U.S. circumcision-related infant deaths. Thymos: J Boyhood Studies, 2010;4(1), 78-90.
Cairns J. Circumcision: A minor procedure? Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(4):311-312.
CDC. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012;61(22):405-9.
Connelly KC, Shropshire LC, Salzberg A. Gastric rupture associated with circumcision. Clin Pediatr. 1992;31(9):560-1.
Fergusson DM, Lawton JM, Shannon FT. Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 1988;81:537-41.
Gairdner D. The fate of the foreskin: a study of circumcision. Br Med J. 1949;2:1433-7.
Gluckman GR, Stoller ML, Jacobs MM, Kogan BA. Newborn penile glans amputation during circumcision and successful reattachment. J Urol. 1995;133(3) Part 1:778-9.
Griffiths D, Frank JD. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs. J R Soc Med. 1992;85:324-5.
Griffiths DM, Atwell JD, Freeman NV. A prospective survey of the indications and morbidity of circumcision in children. Eur Urol. 1985;11:184-7.
Newell TEC. Judgement of inquiry into the death of McWillis, Ryleigh, Roman, Bryan. Burnaby, BC: British Columbia Coroner’s Service, Monday, 19 January 2004.
Pediatric Death Review Committee: Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. Circumcision: A minor procedure? Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(4):311-2.
Sauer LW. Fatal staphylococcus bronchopneumonia following ritual circumcision. Am J Obstetr Gynecol. 1943;46:583.
Scurlock JM, Pemberton PJ. Neonatal meningitis and circumcision. Med J Aust. 1977;1(10):332-4.
Sotolongo JR, Hoffman S, Gribetz ME. Penile denudation injuries after circumcision. J Urol. 1985;133:102-3.
Strimling BS. Partial amputation of glans penis during Mogen clamp circumcision. Pediatrics 1996;97:906-7.
Thorup J, Thorup SC, Ifaoui1IBR. Complication rate after circumcision in a paediatric surgical setting should not be neglected. Dan Med J. 2013;60(8):1–3.
Wetli CV. Autopsy of Demetrius Manker. Miami: Office of the Dade County [Florida] Medical Examiner, 1993.
Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Brit J Surg. 1993;80:1231-6.
Wiswell TE, Geschke DW. Risks From Circumcision During the First Month of Life Compared With Those for Uncircumcised Boys. Pediatrics. 1989;83;1011-1015.
Patel H. The problem of routine infant circumcision. Can Med Assoc J. 1966;95:576-81.
Post-circumcision infection and MRSA
Annunziato D, Goldblum LM. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. A complication of circumcision. Am J Dis Child. 1978;132(12):1187-8.
Auerbach MR, Scanlon JW. Recurrence of pneumothorax as a possible complication of circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978;132:583.
Bratu S, Eramo A, Kopec R, Coughlin E, Ghitan M, Yost R, et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospital nursery and maternity units. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005,11(6):
Fortunov RM, Hulten KG, Hammerman WA, Mason EO Jr, Kaplan SL. Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in term and near-term previously healthy neonates. Pediatrics. 2006;118(3):874-81.
Kirkpatrick BV, Eitzman DV. Neonatal septicemia after circumcision. Clinl Pediatr. 1971;13(9):767-8.
Thompson DJ, Gezon HM, Rogers KD, Yee RB, Hatch TF. Excess risk of staphylococcus infection and disease in newborn males. Am J Epidemiol. 1965;84(2):314-28.
Van Howe, R. S., & Robson, W. L. M. (2007). The possible role of circumcision in newborn outbreaks of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcal aureus. Clinical Pediatrics, 46(4):356-358.
Zafar AB, Butler RC, Reese DJ, Gaydos LA, & Mennonna PA. Use of 0.3% triclosan (Bacti-Stat) to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery.
Am J Infect Control. 1995 Jun;23(3):200-8.
Urinary tract infections
Bergström T: Sex differences in childhood urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child. 1972;47:227-32.
Cunningham N. Circumcision and urinary tract infections. Pediatrics 1986;77(2):267.
Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH Jr. Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics. 1982;69:409-12.
Marild S, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Svedberg K. Protective effect of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(2):164-8.
Schoen EJ, Oehrli M, Colby C, Machin G. The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer. Pediatrics 2000;105(3):e6.
Simforoosh N, Tabibi A, Khalili SA, Soltani MH, Afjehi A, Aalami F, Bodoohi H. Neonatal circumcision reduces the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract inf ection: A large prospective study with long-term follow up using Plastibell. J Pediatr Urol. 2010, Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
To T, Agha M, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study on circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary-tract infection. Lancet. 1998;352(9143):1813-6.
Toker O, Schwartz S, Segal G, Godovitch N, Schlesinger Y, Raveh D. A costly covenant: Ritual circumcision and urinary tract infection. Isr Med Assoc J, 2010;12(5):262-5.
Van Howe RS. Effect of confounding in the association between circumcision status and urinary tract infection. J Infection, 2005;51:59–68.
Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD. Corroborative evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infection in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics. 1986;78:96-9.
Wiswell TE. Urinary tract infection and the uncircumcised state: an update. Clin Pediatrics. 1993;32:130-4.
Abou-Daoud KT. Epidemiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri in Lebanese Christians and Moslems. Cancer. 1967;20:1706-14.
American Cancer Society. (2006). Penile cancer: What are the risk factors for penile cancer? American Cancer Society.
Aitken-Swan J, Baird D. Circumcision and cancer of the cervix. Brit J Cancer. 1965;XIX(2):217-26.
Barney JD. Cancer of the penis. In: Daland EM, Simmons CC, Farber S, Sosman MC, Holmes GW, Warren S, eds. Cancer—A Manual for Practitioners, 2nd ed. Boston: American Cancer Society (Massachusetts Division), Inc.; 1950:161-4.
Bart RS, Kopf AW. Tumor conference No. 18: Squamous-cell carcinoma arising in balanitis xerotica obliterans. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1978;4:556-8.
Bingham JS. Carcinoma of the penis developed in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Br J Vener Dis. 1978;54:350-1.
Boczko S, Freed S. Penile carcinoma in circumcised males. N Y State J Med. 1979;79(12):1903-4.
Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, Herrero R, Gaitan E, Tenorio F, et al. The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women. Int J Cancer. 1989;44:199-203.
Campus GV, Alia F, Bosincu L. Squamous cell carcinoma and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the prepuce. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:962-4.
Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV, de Sanjosé S, et al. for the International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1105-12.
Cold CR, Storms MR, Van Howe RS. Carcinoma in situ of the penis in a 76-year-old circumcised man. J Fam Pract. 1997;44:407-10.
Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Shera KA, Wurscher MA, et al. Penile cancer: Importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in-situ and invasive disease. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:606-16.
Doeven JJ, Oldhoff J, Boer PW, Kuijjer PJ. Penile cancer. Arch Chir Neerl. 1975;27:41-52.
Fleiss PM, Hodges F. Neonatal circumcision does not protect against cancer. BMJ 1996;312(7033):779-80.
Hellberg D, Valentin J, Eklund T, Staffan Nilsson. Penile cancer: Is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behavior. Brit Med J 1987;295(6609):1306-8.
Muir CS, Nectoux J. Epidemiology of cancer of the testis and penis. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1979:157-64.
Van Howe RS, Hodges FM. The carcinogenicity of smegma: debunking a myth. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20(9):1046-54.
STDs and HIV
Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 trial. PLoS Med 2005;2(11):e2.
Bailey RC, Moses S , Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643-56.
Bailis SA. Circumcision and STD in the United States. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Dec;77(6):462-3.
Brewer DD, Brody S, Drucker E, Gisselquist D, Minkin SF, Potterat JJ, et al. Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV in Africa: Cry the beloved paradigm. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:144-7.
Brewer DD, Potterat JJ, Roberts JM, Brody S. Male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:217–26.
Bowers R. Circumcision does not affect women’s STD risk. AIDS Alert. 2007; 22(11):124-5.
Brown JE, Ayowa OB, Brown RC. Dry and tight—sexual practices and potential AIDS risk in Zaire. Soc Sci Med. 1993;37:989-94.
Cook LS, Koutsky LA, and Holmes KK. Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(2):197-201.
Deuchert E, Brody S. Lack of autodisable syringe use and health care indicators are associated with high hiv prevalence: an international ecologic analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17(3):199-207.
Dickson NP, Van Roode T, Herbison P, Paul C. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmitted infections in a birth cohort. J Pediatr. 2008;152(3):383-7.
Diseker RA 3rd, Peterman TA, Kamb ML, Kent C, Zenilman JM, et al. Circumcision and STD in the United States: Cross sectional and cohort analyses. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(6):474-9.
Donovan B, Bassett I, Bodsworth NJ. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting. Genitourin Med. 1994;70:317-20.
Dowsett GW, Couch M. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: Is there really enough of the right kind of evidence? Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15(29):33–44.
Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infection in young adult males: An analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort. Pediatrics. 118(5):1971-7.
Garenne M. Male circumcision and HIV control in Africa. PLoS Med. 2006;3(1):e78.
Gisselquist D, Potterat JJ, Brody S, Vachon F. Let it be sexual: how health care transmission of AIDS in Africa was ignored. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:148-61.
Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: A randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657-66.
Hart G. Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonococcal infection in males. Genitourin Med. 1993;69(5):393-6.
Montori VM, Devereaux PJ, Adhikari NK, Burns KE, Eggert CH, Briel M, et al. Randomized trials stopped early for benefit: A systematic review. JAMA. 2005;294:2203–9.
Mor Z, Kent CK, Kohn RP, Klausner JD. Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit. PLoS One. 2007;2(9):e861.
Parker SW, Stewart AJ, Wren MN, Gollow MM, Straton AJ. Circumcision and sexually transmissible diseases . Med J Aust. 1983;2:288-90.
Smith DK, Taylor A, Kilmarx PH, Sullivan P, Warner L, Kamb M, Bock N, Kohmescher B, Mastro TD. Male circumcision in the United States for the prevention of HIV infection and other adverse health outcomes: Report from a CDC consultation. Public Health Rep. 2010;125:72-82.
Siegfried N, Muller M, Volmink J, Deeks J, Egger M, Low N, Weiss H, Walker S, Williamson P. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003. Oxford:Update Software.
Van Howe RS, Svoboda JS, Hodges FM. HIV infection and circumcision: cutting through the hyperbole. J Roy Soc Health. 2005;125(6):259-65.
Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 2000;14:2361370.
Pain, stress, trauma and alexithymia
Anand KJ, Scalzo FM. Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior? Biol Neonate. 2000 Feb;77(2):69-82.
Anand KJS, for the International Evidence-Based Group for Neonatal Pain. Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:173-80.
Anand KJS, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New Engl J Med. 1987;317(21):1321-9.
Berenbaum H, James T. Correlates and retrospectively reported antecedents of alexithymia. Psychosom Med. 1994;56:353-359.
Bollinger D, Van Howe, RS. Alexithymia and circumcision trauma: A preliminary investigation. Int J Men’s Health, 2011;10(2):184-95.
Chamberlain DB, Babies remember pain. Pre- and Perinatal Psych. J. 1989;3:297-310.
Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Committee on Drugs, Section on Anesthesiology, Section on Surgery, American Academy of Pediatrics. Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate. Pediatrics. 2000;105(2):454-61.
Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, American Academy of Pediatrics; Task Force on Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, American Pain Society. The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):793-7.
Emde RN, Harmon RJ, Metcalf D, Koenig KL, Wagonfeld S. Stress and neonatal sleep. Psychosom Med. 1971;33(6):491-7.
Fitzgerald M. The birth of pain. MRC News (London). Summer 1998:20-3.
Gavranidou M, Rosner R. The weaker sex? Gender and post-traumatic stress disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2003;17:130-139.
Gunnar MR, Fisch RO, Korsvik S, Donhowe JM. The effects of circumcision on serum cortisol and behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1981;6(3):269-75.
Hepper PG, Fetal memory: Does it exist? What does it do? Acta Pædiatr. (Stockholm) 1996;Suppl.416:16-20.
Holman JR, Stuessi K. Adult Circumcision. American Family Physician. 1999;67(6):1514-1520.
Howard CR, Howard FM, and Weitzman ML. Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain. Pediatrics. 1994;93(4):641-6.
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Jeannine Parvati Baker. Ending circumcision: Where sex and violence first meet. Primal Renaissance: The Journal of Primal Psychology. 1996;2(1):54-58.
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Intact foreskin care and alternatives
Bollinger D. The Penis-Care Information Gap: Preventing Improper Care of Intact Boys. Thymos, 2008;1(2), 205-219.
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Equal rights, ethics, religion and law
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US Congress, Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of 1995. 18U.S.C.116.
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Korner AF. Methodological considerations in studying sex differences in the behavioral functions of newborns. In R. C. Friedman, R. N. Richart, and R. L. Vande Wiele (Eds.), Sex differences in behavior. New York: Wiley. 1974. (similar to Richards, Bernal, and Brackbill)
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Sensitivity and sensation
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Sexual function and erectile dysfunction
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