Circumcision Not Recommended
Cervical cancer is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), which can be contracted in numerous ways, including sexually, and is worsened by smoking.1
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- Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV, de Sanjosé S, et al. for the International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1105-12. ↩
- Fox M, Thomson M. Short changed? The law and ethics of male circumcision. Intl J Children’s Rights. 2005;13:161-81. ↩
- Hodges FM, Svoboda JS, Van Howe RS. Prophylactic interventions on children: balancing human rights with public health. J Med Ethics. 2002;28(1):10-16. ↩