Frostbite is most likely to happen in body parts farthest from the heart and those with large exposed areas, such as the penis. The initial stages of frostbite are sometimes called “frostnip.” The affected tissue should not be rubbed or massaged to warm it since this can cause further damage. Treatment is either slow, passive heating or fast, active heating, with the latter done only under the guidance of medical personnel. Every effort should be made to retain as much of the foreskin as possible, since it has many blood vessels, thereby keeping the penis warm and preventing further frostbite incidences. If any part of the foreskin is frostbitten to the point that it necroses (dies), that portion will have to be removed. However, aggressive amputation is not required and a plastic surgeon should be able to retain much of the foreskin. Circumcision is indicated if the entire foreskin necrotizes. See Gangrene.